The Fiction of Philip Kaveny
Philip E. Kaveny
Dec 18th 2013
From W.B. Du Bois’ concepts of the color line, double consciousness, and the talented 10th as they relate to Pam Grier’s multifaceted identity in the first 22 years of her life.
In this paper I will apply the following three of W.B. DuBois’ concepts which he developed throughout his career, the double consciousness, the color line and the talented tenth, to African American actress, Civil Rights activist, and feminist, Pam Grier’s life experiences, as she reports in her 2010 autobiography, Foxy. I have chosen to examine these concepts as they highlight African American and White interactions and social transactions in different historical, social, and geographic settings during the first twenty-two years of years of her life ending with her initial acting appearance in the Roger Corman film The Big Doll House in iin 1971.
In applying this analytical frame I am acknowledging certain negative aspects of double consciousness, in that it describes the individual sensation of feeling as though one’s identity is divided into several parts, making it difficult or impossible to have one unified identity. Still we would argue that in the early 21st century, though race is generally regarded as a socio-historical construct, the ability to think of oneself in terms of one’s’ literary or artistic integrity in a difficult or demeaning social situation might contribute to the success of those same literary and artistic projects. Of course it would be difficult to argue that the color line has been eradicated, particularly in early 21st Century America and particularly in our decaying urban centers. The South Bronx, East L.A. and central city Detroit, and of course Milwaukee recently being award the title of America’s most segregated city. It is also necessary to note a new color line having emerged according to The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People statistics in regard to African American male incarceration rates. According to 2012 statistics, one in three African American males is now threatened with the prospect of incarceration at some point in their lives.ii
Before continuing with this paper I need to say why I chose W.E.B. Du Bois’ work on double consciousness, the color line, and finally the talented tenth as an interpretive framework for this paper. W.E.B. Du Bois, 1868 to 1963, was one of the towering intellectual figures of both the 19th and nearly the first two-thirds of the 20th century. From the time he wrote his doctoral dissertation on the suppression of the African slave trade behind the veil of self-segregation until the time he became involved in the Cold War struggle for men’s hearts and minds in the middle of the 20th century, W.E.B. Du Bois has exemplified an intellectual and scholarly presence which would make him, on an intellectually productive level, a peer of Karl Marx Max, Weber, Michelle Foucault, or any of the other evidence-base scholars relying on social facts to groundiii their evidence-based discourse.iv
In earlier versions of this paper, before it took its postmodern turn, I tried to focus more broadly on Pam Grier’s entire career. In order to counter-balance that tendency, remembering that this in fact is an English Department seminar paper, I am returning to the time-tested strategy of close reading and only focusing on five or six chapters covering the first third of Grier’s life while she was still dealing with the color line, double consciousness and finally the role of Pam Grier as part of what W.E.B Du Bois’ referred to as the talented tenth. Du Bois saw this group functioning as kind of vanguard creating opportunities not only for other African-Americans but also for succeeding generations. One cannot help but think of the example of the baseball player Jackie Robinson whose courageous action has created opportunities within professional sports for three generations and uncountable thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, of African-American men and women.v
To further develop a consensus definition of social fact one might say it was a result of an unintended consequence of human activity which must exist in a class by itself. For example one might say that according to this analytical approach, which is grounded in a non-metaphysical sense, that the social fact of reconstruction was an unintended consequence of the southern states seceding from the Union, firing on Fort Sumter and Abraham Lincoln’s emancipation proclamation. Thus by extension the post-Civil War milieu of reconstruction, followed by the imposition of the Jim Crow South were some of the social facts of W.E.B. Du Bois’ existence and they were also the object of his lifetime study.
In applying these concepts we will start with Pam Grier’s early years as a military dependent of her African American family as her father was noncommissioned officer stationed in several United States Air force bases, both overseas and stateside. The major focus of the paper will concentrate on the Los Anglees period of her life as she transforms and recasts herself form a Denver, Metro-College undergraduate and beauty contest winner to an aspiring UCLA Film School student and finally to the start of her career as an actress in the Roger Corman 1971 film The Big Doll House. In this paper we will be charting the trajectory of the first third or twenty-two years of Pam Grier’s life. In the process we keep in mind her favorite quote from the bible of her creative life, An Actor Prepares by Constantin Stanislavsky. She quoted Stanislavsky in her autobiography in order to recreate the situation more than forty years earlier in her life, when she had studied her lines for The Big Doll House in the sweltering Manila, Philippines summer heat while the other actors went out to party. She quoted Stanislavsky as saying: “There are no small parts, only small actors.” Within this trajectory we will be noting a transformation and evolution in her consciousness as she moves from a developing identity to her performance as an actress, to a performance of her emergent, left, identity politics as they drove her acting performances.
The viability of this double consciousness which became a life affirming stratagem first presented itself as I reflected on the life and work of expatriate African American writer Richard Wright (1908-1960). For example in Black Boy (Chapter 6, p145-148) Wright is forced as a seventh grader to work for an almost comically brutal lower-class White family in order for his family to survive. During his job-interview he must answer the housemistress’ question: “Are you a thief,” with a straight face, as if he would tell her if he was. He is offered moldy white bread and molasses while the family eats bacon and eggs, and yet he knows that all he can say about the inedible slop is “I am not hungry,” and hope for an opportunity to score some food when nobody’s looking. Yet in all of that degrading madness he can answer his mistress’s question,
“Then why are you going to school?”
He could reply,
“Well I want to be a writer.”
Even after she counters with:
“You’ll never be a writer, who on earth put such ideas in your nigger head?”
Richard is able to maintain his divided self between his aspirations as a twelve- year-old and the brutal expectations of a family who will kick his teeth in if he looks at them the wrong way, something which has to be viewed as a costly-won survival skill buy yet allows him to report the incident two decades later, and me to read about it seven decades later, and marvel at his integrity. In a sense, Richard Wright wrote his own life-script as a writer. Instead of accepting ‘his place’ as a houseboy, he was able to manipulate that life-script so that he became a writer.
Pam Grier, as she relates events in her childhood in the 1950’s, and coming of age in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, expresses differently a few of the problems of African American and White interactions and social transactions in different historical, social, and geographic settings as she indicates in her autobiography. For example, in Chapter 1, “Stunt Work,” Pam Grier describes the degrading family experience in her childhood of the de facto segregation of Columbus Ohio in the early 1950’s. Her father was stationed as a non-commissioned officer in the United States Air force. Even though the United States Armed Executive Order 9981, issued on July 26, 1948 by President Harry S. Truman, abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed Forces, nevertheless her family was subjected to the demeaning effects of de facto segregation in off-base housing and public transportation. She points out that she, her mother, and her sister were forced to walk long miles home from shopping trips because Columbus Ohio City Buses did not stop for Negros, even in the case of mothers weighed down with heavy packages and managing little girls. I go into such detail about this because I have lived in the North my entire life, and suffer from the disease of Northern liberal hypocrisy which is blind to its own brand of historical and contemporary racism
In further reflecting on the first chapter of Pam Grier’s autobiography, “Stunt Work,” I think that it is time to rehabilitate the concept of authorial intent, at least in the case of this African American autobiography. Among other things one finds that two of Pam Grier’s grandparents were not African American, one being white and one being of Filipino descent. A closer reading of this chapter indicates of course seven or eight instances of the negative effects of the color line. However it is necessary for the reader in a phenomenological sense to bracket their expectations and return to the text, that is to say this chapter, with an open mind. What I mean is that this chapter is not an alibi for failure but a way for her to convey to us some of the positive sources for her later success as they are embodied in her family relations, particularly her balanced portrayal of white people. For example on my first reading of this chapter I did not even notice that a white bus driver who might have been viewed as a traitor to his race actually stopped for her little family and the power of her mother’s humanity seemed to reach out and touch the bus driver in a non-physical sense. Both of her parents of mixed descent are interesting and admirable. Her characterization of strength in the handsomeness of her mulatto father when contrasted with some of his less than optimal life outcomes are particularly interested in light of Pam Grier’s mother. Her mother seems to have the emotional balance of a lumberjack in a logrolling contest, able to accept the little miracles granted to them and move on past when that is not the case.
There is a Joycean richness of color and sensation that Pam Grier presents in Chapter 1 that evokes some of the language used in the opening chapters of his Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man. It is like a hybrid text, perhaps more like an allegory, in which the richness of the gardens reflects or perhaps articulates her family and community values in Colorado. The rich earth grounds Pam Grier’s lifetime political and ecological values and she makes it sound like Tolkien’s Shire, even though her family members are definitely not Hobbits. For example let us look at this closing paragraph from “Stunt Work.”: “We were taught to respect and cherish the earth and that has stayed with me my entire life. When I hear the famous Joni Mitchell lyric “They paved paradise and put in a parking lot,” I nod my head. I may not have been raised like a privileged city kid with a ton of new clothes and toys, but that means nothing because when I was growing up, I got to live in paradise.”
Particularly the activities the kids engage in, for example movies where black and white children watch films together, foreshadows, as she says, her desire to make films which is to become a driving force in her life. It sounds a little pompous to say her artistic vision was foreshadowed by her ability see the zipper on the back of the Godzilla costume in the monster movie they were watching, but these sorts of observations are part and parcel of the her developing consciousness. She talks about her mother’s artistic and designing ability to make dresses suitable for the cover of Vogue magazine. It is interesting to note that not too many years ago the wife of America’s first African American president, Michelle Obama, actually did grace the cover of Vogue magazine.
The next three chapters, 2-Marky and Me, 3-keeping secrets, and 4-The Big House, must be taken as a unit, acknowledged, and then further studied in depth in a later paper. The reason is that the depth of the philosophical questions about the nature of evil followed by the power of healing are of monumental significance. In those three chapters Pam Grier is betrayed by her grandmother and then psychologically abused by her. She is, as a six-year-old girl, brutally raped by male friends of her family while caretakers are absent and then physically assaulted by a mentally ill little boy of her approximate age. Again the thing that makes this account so telling is she takes us from the innocent perspective of the six-year-old girl, and yet nearly 57 years later she can comment on the physical post-traumatic-stress symptoms that appear when she is reminded of the yellow t-shirt that one of her assailants nearly suffocated her with.
What does double consciousness, the color line, and the talented tenth have to do with the traumatization and betrayal of a six-year-old girl? First the color line: My readings of Du Bois I indicate that it exists in both a diachronic, that is to say historical sense, and in a synchronic and geographic sense. And since it is an on intended consequence of human activity it will change, and more, according to its surface circumstances. Sometimes it is a red line in a bank’s home loan department. Sometimes it is a street that divides Watts, or as I understand it, East Los Angeles from the West section and the rest of the city. Sometimes it is a wall of incarceration. Yet in the two instances of rape and the instance of physical assault Pam Grier was rescued by a white male. In the first instance a white phone repairman who showed up by accident, tore the second the rapist off her. In the second, a bystander, also White helped her. However then her rescuers left once she was safe, and the rapes were not reported. Pam Grier tells us that part of the social reality of that time was that the repair man feared that he would be blamed as the rapist.
The subsequent events as they play out in these chapters are horrific. Perhaps to Pam Grier they evoke an image from T.S. Eliot’s The Wasteland, drawn from the recesses of classical Greek mythology, of Philomela and her rape.vi Six-year-old Pam Grier is raped and brutalized and forced into silence for a number of years. She stutters, she says nearly nothing, she becomes the little girl with no personality. She wants no attention. Pretty girls get raped and nobody talks. But then she starts her healing press. In this process perhaps her greatest talent appears, one which will serve her for the rest of her life, as she recovers from loss and heals. This does not mean that the suffering and the race threats contributed to her growth, it only means that she heals herself.
I have reflected greatly on her healing process, the fact that she could ride the big horse and somehow reconnect with the world. Here I want to draw from our seminar discussion of Foxy and move ahead several years in her life when she is a freshman at Metro College in Denver and she is again brutally raped by a friend of her family, an Afro-American of high-status athletic ability and high standing within her local Catholic church. Some classmates during the discussion thought her self-esteem was so lowered and brutalized that she could not seek revenge. Yet to my knowledge she did a very courageous thing: turning to Chapter 9 (location 968). She did not call out her relatives. She did not activate the perpetual motion machine of revenge. She moved past the experience. We must look back at the time. We must look at how hard it was to prove a rape charge against an individual of standing. Her actions evoke an unusual image in my mind from an ESPN documentary about the boxer Rubin ‘hurricane’ Carter who at about the same time in the Newark race riots was wrongly convicted of murder. In order to do what he needed to do to clear himself with the United States Supreme Court and get his wrongful conviction set aside he had to stop hating those who had framed him and perpetrated the deception. Then just reflecting on him, I think of the limited choices that Pam Grier may have had. This may have been the most important thing that she did in order to survivevii.
As I stopped to reflect on Pam’s Grier’s experience in Chapter 5, I realize a new perspective. I realize how significant it was for her to live in England with her family, where her father was stationed in the Air Force. This was a place where others’ perceptions of the construction of her race would either be nonexistent, less important, or less than a salient feature or immutable aspect of her identity. At this point it occurred to me that possibly, in 1895 when W.E.B. Du Bois lived in Berlin, he may have had similar feelings even though he was a doctoral candidate and she was a seven-year-old girl. And then a kind of litany about W.E.B. Du Bois emerged. At this point in the creation of this research paper, 23 hours and 30 min. before the drop box submission deadline, I’m having what I will call him Ralph Ellison moment. It is safe to say that there is a struggle going on between what I am trying to write and what is trying to work its way onto my mind as a kind of synthesis for all the areas we have covered in this course. The future is brighter because I’m getting much better with Dragon Speak which is a speech to text program and it can’t spell words and format sentences, which I cannot do either because of my dyslexia. I am not saying this to, in the terms of Michel Foucault, medicalize myself but ‘Michelle Foucault’ on the page before you is a word I cannot spell. And worse than that I see it the way it should look, rather than the way it does look on this page. But I’m glad for deadlines because otherwise the struggle would never articulate itself. Du Bois is asserting himself in my paper and I cannot stop it. That is because he is more than his work and he is more than the analytical framework that I have adopted him from. He, like Pam Grier 60 years later in England, studied in Berlin and lived outside of the world with the color line. He had many of the same experiences that Pam Grier would have, first shipboard on the ocean liner that took her and her family to England as military dependants and also while living in England. 60 years before, in 1895 at age 27, W.E.B. Du Bois was the first African-American to be awarded a Doctor of philosophy from Harvardviii. The next year the United States Supreme Court, through the Plessy versus Ferguson decision, created and legalized the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ as the law of the land. 58 years later, still alive and kicking, working his lifetime as the teacher, editor, and cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peopleix, and at age 87, he was able to see that decision overturned by Brown versus the Board of Education. What I am saying is that in no way was he either a positivist and essentialist, and certainly not a scientific racist. Somewhere in his writings he says: “I believe there is only one race and it is the human race.” Of all the things I have read for this study the Bobby Wilson article will stay with me the longest and is the most thought-provoking. Because, as I have stated, what he, Du Bois, was is not what Bobby Wilson says, what he was was on the diachronic, and in some ways, in the synchronic perspective of a geographer.x
.Apparently W.E.B. Du Bois, again from Bobby Wilson’s perspective, which is interesting because he is viewing our field from an outside perspective and stating how W.E.B. Du Bois believed a kind of cyclical progression from the personal to the local to the historical and then back to the local. It evokes the image from the opening few pages of Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, where Ellison cautions us all, as did Thomas Jefferson in much more elevated prose, to beware of the boomerang of history. And surely in the 21st century many Americans can hear the boomerang coming back. And we hope whizzing by our ears. If Wilson is correct than after this apparent aggression in which we have acknowledged the world shaping effects of W.E.B. Du Bois’ life and work. In his last days he died as the internationalist living in Ghana at age 95, in 1963, on the day after the August 27 Civil Rights march on Washington.
Having acknowledged that historical timeline we can now move back and deal with the personal aspects of Pam Grier’s life, perhaps here foreshadowing our final argument that she, shortly after the end of this period of study, will be moving to that historical and political sphere where she remains to this day. Time and space force me to jump ahead to Chapter 7, “Going Gospel”: By this time Pam Grier, at age 15, is part of the gospel choir, having recovered her voice. Her group performed in East Los Angeles near the Watts neighborhood. Right at that time all hell broke loose in the Watts riots which turned into urban racial warfare. I remember the riots. I was in the University of Wisconsin Memorial Library talking to a friend long-distance whose best man in marriage I had been and he was giving me an almost newscast-like account of the riots because he was managing a franchise called Jack-in-the-Box in East Los Angeles next to the border.
In Chapter 10, “Going Hollywood,” Pam Grier describes a little known aspect of African American clothes shopping. In most American cities, African Americans were not allowed to try on clothes in fitting rooms, but rather forced to purchase them, take them home to try on, and return unsatisfactory ones if the sales slip had not disappeared. Yet she was awe struck to find that something had changed in the California of her young adulthood. Even though she walked into a Beverly Hills clothing store dressed in boots and jeans, the clerk nonchalantly directed her towards the fitting room just like she would anybody else, Black or White. The question of whether or not this freedom to shop was a signifier that the lyrics of Bob Dylan’s 1964 song “The Times They Are a-Changin’” was gaining some cultural traction are an open question, again for a longer paper.
The last, and the most moving and spiritual aspect of what, for now, I will call the positive iteration of the double consciousness takes place In Chapter 14, “The Big Doll House” where at a very difficult time of her life, after refusing a marriage proposal from her boyfriend Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, she took a role in a Roger Corman film. The marriage offer was contingent upon her joining Kareem in his conversion to Islam upon his graduation from UCLA were he had rewritten all the college basketball records and changed the rulebook before going on to a twenty-year NBA franchise-building career in which he became a multi-millionaire . Pam Grier found herself having won the role of a bisexual prostitute in Corman’s women’s prison film, complete with soapy shower scenes and lots of nudity. She was paid the handsome sum of five hundred dollars a week, three times the combined amount of money she was receiving for one full- and two part-time jobs. And yet the low-paying jobs where her avenue to both establish California State residency for in state tuition purposes and earn enough money for tuition in order to attend UCLA Film School. Yet the manner in which she explained her reaction to this situation was to quote the bible of her creative life, An Actor Prepares, by Constantin Stanislavsky. She quoted Stanislavsky in order to recreate the situation more than forty years earlier in her life, when she had studied her lines in the sweltering Manila Philippine summer heat while the other actors went out to party. She quoted Stanislavsky as saying: “There are no small parts, only small actors.” In her own words, she added to her role in “The Big Doll House” her rage at all the indignities she and her family had suffered due to de facto segregation. Added to childhood anger was her emerging commitment to feminism and the Civil Rights Movement as well her outrage at witnessing the police and National Guard brutality in the 1965 Watts race riots. Having personally watched “The Big Doll House” and several other Grier films, I can say that she elevated the entire production to challenge the limitations of the genre definition of the sexploitation skin flick.
This concludes the Pam Grier early years section of this papers other work will follow on the next 43 years of her life. Yet the paper still needs a conclusion and the conclusion is really in the title. From W.B. Du Bois’ concepts of the color line, double consciousness, and the talented 10th to Pam Grier’s multifaceted identity in the first 22 years of her life. It might be a bit of a stretch to characterize Karl Marx and W E.B. Du Bois’ as contemporaries Karl Marx dying in 1885 when W.B. Du Bois’ was 17 years old. Yet Marx’s ideas untested my laboratory of history were in the air and part of the European and American epistemological landscape. And that landscape was grounded in an agrarian and industrial economy, with in America as late as 1890 half of the population being engaged agrarian modes of production. So when he developed his concept of the talented 10th he was mostly referring to African-American men receiving liberal college educations and I suspect had very little to do with feminism the role of women. Who we forget did not win the right to vote until 1920 nearly 50 years after African-American males. Yet 120 years later the talented 10th might be reinterpreted as a kind of non-Marxist Vanguard involved in the politics of positive representatives of multiple identities this is a topic for a larger paper.
However in my research process perhaps the most encouraging paper I read was one which did in-depth multiple interviews of African American self-selected though they might have been mixed raced students who described the multifaceted identities which situations required them to projectxi. There was a possibility of an interaction and was dynamically illustrated in the article which really suggested a potential for the projection of multiple identities which then any ascribing of what might be interpreted as a negative essentialist. One of the disturbing aspects of W.B. Du Bois’ analysis particularly in his Writings in Dark water Veil was his negative portrayal of service occupations is limited to African-American domestic servants performing these tasks. These was something he felt was degrading and he wished African-Americans did not have to do it and he hoped it could be just done away with by machines. In 21st century America because of the way capitalism as continued to morphologically refine and change itself to through its international iterations, the majority of American workers and managers are really service workerr here I will self reference my own 2006 seminar UW.Eau Claire Graduate Critical Theory The Curse of The Hobbit. Paper (Soon to appear In Issue Two of The Outlaw Intellectual in which I quote
I think that Fredric Jameson says it best on page 141 of The Cultural Turn. “Thus the system is better seen as a kind of virus … and its development as something like an epidemic (better still a rash of epidemics, an epidemic of epidemics). The system has its own logic which powerfully undermines it and destroys the logic of more traditional or pre-capitalistic societies ….” The only thing Jameson did not note here was this epidemic also destroys earlier stages of capitalismxii
the way to think about this is to formulate a non-linear trajectory for the events of the subsequent events of the ensuing decades of the 21st century. Where a different kind of pluralism or populism if you will you balance which is not as easily manipulated by those who would benefit by a populace divided by wedge issues and structure and like-minded silos of communication. Don’t forget it was it was president Obama who suggested that all of us public television viewers, and and National Public Radio listeners watch Fox news. I am not arguing that class is nonexistent. Every indicator for the last 40 according to economists like Paul Krugman indicate we are becoming a much more stratified and less mobile society, but that downward mobility which is become so much a part of most American lives may have unintended consequence, which lead to something other than a dictatorship of the proletariat. Perhaps the emergence of what Michelle Foucault would call a new dangers class consisting of those who have lost everything in foreclosure, and students who face a lifetime of student loan debt peonage not unlike that based by the emancipated Russian serfs in 1861 two years, before Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. Incidentally acquired by Russian serfs, was to be passed down for three or four generations of their families with a payoff date set for 1961. There is historical precedent for long-term debt pay down. For example in 2010 Germany’s Angela Merkel made the last payment on the debt incurred by Imperial Germany for the cost of World War I. Which they were then forced to assume by the Treaty of Versailles. One can only wonder if the graduating class of 2114 might be in the same position.
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i Double consciousness is a concept that Du Bois first explores in 1903 publication, “The Souls of Black Folk”. Double consciousness describes the individual sensation of feeling as though your identity is divided into several parts, making it difficult or impossible to have one unified identity. Du Bois spoke of this phenomenon within the context of race relations in the United States. He asserted that since American blacks have lived in a society that has historically repressed and devalued them it has become difficult for them to unify their black identity with their American identity (Edles and Appelrouth, p 351-352). Double consciousness forces blacks to not only view themselves from their own unique perspective, but to also view themselves as they might be perceived by the outside (read: white) world. This is what Du Bois spoke of in the above passage when he talked about “the sense of looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” (351).
iv Hamilton, Kendra. “A Timeless Legacy.” Black Issues In Higher Education 19.26 (2003): 24. Professional Development Collection. Web. 17 Dec. 2013.
v What Is Close Reading?
Essentially, close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension. The Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) supplies clarification useful for teaching with Common Core standards in mind:Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a text of sufficient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and reread deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supporting details. It also enables students to reflect on the meanings of individual words and sentences; the order in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole. (PARCC, 2011, p. 7)
vi Philomela and Procne were the daughters of King Pandion of Athens. Procne was married to King Tereus of Thrace (one of the sons of Ares), and had a son by him, Itys. Tereus conceived an illicit passion for Philomela and contrived to get her sent to Thrace; he raped her, and then cut her tongue out and imprisoned her so that she could tell no one of his crime. However, Philomela wove a tapestry which revealed the facts of the matter to Procne. In order to get revenge, Procne killed Itys and cooked him, so that Tereus ate his own son for dinner. When Tereus discovered the ghastly trick, he pursued the two women, trying to kill them. Before the chase could end, all three were turned into birds–Tereus into a hoopoe, Procne into a swallow, and Philomela into a nightingale. (Hence the nightingale is often called a “Philomel” in poetry.)
viii The Suppression of the African Slave Trade 1638-1870. Orginally published by Harvard Historical Studies in 1896 Longman Green & Company,. New York. Kindle ebook file.2013
DuBois ,W.E.B. Darkwater Voices From Within The Veil. Orginally published by Harcourt Brace, and Company. New York. Kindle ebook file.2013
x Wilson, Bobby M. “Critically Understanding Race-Connected Practices: A Reading of W. E. B. Du Bois and Richard Wright.” 2002. The Professional Geographer 54 (1), 31-41.1
xi Stewart, Dafina Lazarus. Perceptions of Multiple Identities Among Black College Students. 50(2) (2009). 253-270.
xii Jameson, Fredric. The Cultural Turn: Selected Writings on postmodernism 1983-1898. London: Verso, 1998.